Clinical trials on Transplant Rejection

Understanding Transplant Rejection

Transplant rejection occurs when the recipient’s immune system identifies the transplanted organ or tissue as foreign and mounts an attack against it. This natural defense mechanism, designed to protect the body from potentially harmful invaders, can unfortunately misinterpret a lifesaving transplant as a threat. The complexity of the human immune system means that even with a close match between donor and recipient, and the use of immunosuppressive drugs, rejection can still occur. There are three main types of rejection: hyperacute, acute, and chronic.

  • Hyperacute Rejection: This immediate response happens within minutes to hours after the transplant. It is rare, thanks to pre-transplant compatibility testing, but when it occurs, it is often severe and leads to immediate organ failure.
  • Acute Rejection: Occurring within the first few months after the transplant, acute rejection is the most common type. Despite being a serious concern, it can often be managed effectively with medication adjustments.
  • Chronic Rejection: This type unfolds over many years, characterized by the gradual loss of organ function. It represents a significant challenge in long-term transplant success and patient health.

Preventing and managing transplant rejection is a delicate balance of ensuring the immune system is suppressed enough to accept the new organ while still being capable of fighting off infections. Advances in immunosuppressive medications and monitoring techniques have significantly improved outcomes for transplant recipients. However, the threat of rejection never fully disappears, making regular follow-up and adherence to treatment plans crucial for the longevity of the transplant.

Prognosis for Transplant Rejection

Transplant rejection occurs when the recipient’s immune system attacks the transplanted organ or tissue. The long-term prospects for individuals with transplant rejection vary depending on the type of transplant, the timing of the rejection, and the response to immunosuppressive therapy. Acute rejection, which occurs shortly after the transplant, can often be managed effectively with medications. Chronic rejection, which develops over months to years, poses a more significant challenge and can lead to a gradual loss of function of the transplanted organ. The prognosis is also influenced by the degree of match between donor and recipient, the overall health of the recipient, and adherence to post-transplant care protocols. Continuous monitoring and medical management are crucial in improving outcomes and prolonging the function of the transplanted organ. Advances in immunosuppressive treatments have improved the prognosis, allowing for the maintenance of functional transplants for extended periods.

Complications in Transplant Rejection

When the body’s immune system identifies a transplanted organ as a foreign threat, it may attack it, leading to transplant rejection. This immune response can cause various complications that significantly impact health and daily life. A common issue is organ dysfunction, where the transplanted organ does not work as it should, leading to a range of symptoms depending on the organ affected. For instance, rejection of a kidney transplant might result in fatigue, swelling, and fluid retention.

Another complication is the increased risk of infections due to the medications used to suppress the immune system and prevent rejection. These medications can make it harder for the body to fight off germs, leading to more frequent and severe infections. Additionally, there may be drug side effects, which can range from mild discomfort to more serious conditions affecting the body’s various systems. These complications can reduce the quality of life and daily functioning, making it challenging to engage in normal activities.

Treatment Methods for Transplant Rejection

To manage transplant rejection, several non-clinical trial approaches are recommended. Dietary adjustments focusing on balanced nutrition support overall health and may aid in medication efficacy. Regular physical activity, tailored to individual capacity, helps maintain body function and can improve immune response.

  • Pharmacotherapy: Central to treatment, with immunosuppressive drugs prescribed to prevent the immune system from attacking the transplanted organ. These medications require careful monitoring and dosage adjustments by healthcare professionals.
  • Modern technology: Contributes through telemedicine platforms, allowing for remote monitoring of health status. This ensures timely medical intervention and medication management. Additionally, mobile apps designed to track medication schedules, side effects, and physical activity can support individuals in managing their treatment regimen.

These methods, combined with regular medical supervision, form a comprehensive approach to managing transplant rejection, aiming to prolong the function of the transplanted organ and improve the quality of life.

  • CT-EU-00088883

    Studying riliprubart’s effect on the prevention and treatment of antibody-mediated rejection

    The aim of this study is to test a new drug called Riliprubart (BIVV020) to see if it can help address a common problem in kidney transplant patients called antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). AMR happens when the body fights against the new kidney. The study consists of two parts: group one tests whether Riliprubart can prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance, while group B tests whether it can help if antimicrobial resistance already exists. The test also checks whether the drug is safe, how it works in the body and whether the body perceives it as something foreign. The study lasts about 2 years, during which doctors carefully monitor the condition of the patients’ kidneys, possible side effects and how the drug moves through the body after administration.

    • Riliprubart
    • Immunoglobulin (IVIg)
    • Antithymocyte globulin
    • Mycophenolate
    • Rituximab
    • Corticosteroids
    • Tacrolimus
  • Comparing tegoprubart and tacrolimus in kidney transplants

    This medical trial, called “BESTOW,” is a trial comparing two drugs, terazprubart (known as AT-1501) and the standard drug, tacrolimus, used in kidney transplant patients. Doctors will test which one is safe and works better, helping the new kidney work properly without the body rejecting it. This study will involve approximately 120 people who have received a new kidney transplant. Participants will be randomized to receive AT-1501 or tacrolimus along with other common post-transplant medications. 12 months after the surgery, scientists will check how well the patient’s new kidney is working, as well as whether the patient with the transplanted kidney has developed diabetic disease (diabetes). They will also check the patient’s health condition and whether the participant needed a new kidney or had to return to regular dialysis.

    • Tegoprubart
    • Tacrolimus