Clinical trials on Alzheimer’s Disease

Understanding Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive neurological disorder that leads to the atrophy of the brain and the death of brain cells. It is the most common cause of dementia, a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life. The disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer, who first described it in 1906. Alzheimer’s disease primarily affects individuals over the age of 65, a demographic often referred to as having late-onset Alzheimer’s. However, there is a less common form known as early-onset Alzheimer’s, which can affect individuals as young as their 30s or 40s.

Symptoms and Progression

  • Memory Loss: One of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer’s is the difficulty in remembering newly learned information because Alzheimer’s changes typically begin in the part of the brain that affects learning.
  • Challenges in Planning or Solving Problems: Some people may experience changes in their ability to develop and follow a plan or work with numbers. They may have trouble following a familiar recipe or keeping track of monthly bills.
  • Confusion with Time or Place: Losing track of dates, seasons, and the passage of time is a common occurrence. People with Alzheimer’s can lose track of where they are or how they got there.

Treatment and Management

While there is currently no cure for Alzheimer’s Disease, there are treatments available that can help manage symptoms in some people. These treatments can include medication for memory loss and other cognitive symptoms, as well as medications to manage issues like sleep disturbances and behavior changes. In addition to medical treatments, lifestyle adjustments and support from caregivers can significantly improve the quality of life for those living with Alzheimer’s. It’s also crucial for those affected and their families to seek support from communities and organizations dedicated to Alzheimer’s care and research.

Prognosis for Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease is recognized as a progressive neurological disorder that gradually impairs memory and cognitive function. The prognosis for Alzheimer’s Disease typically involves a slow decline over several years, with the rate of progression varying among individuals. In the initial stages, one may experience mild confusion and difficulty remembering recent events, but as the disease advances, the loss of ability to carry out everyday activities and communicate effectively can occur. The intermediate stages are characterized by increased memory loss and difficulties with language, while the advanced stages often result in severe memory loss and a significant decline in physical health. Life expectancy after diagnosis can range from 4 to 20 years, depending on factors such as age, overall health, and the stage of the disease at diagnosis. It is important to acknowledge that Alzheimer’s Disease is currently incurable, and the long-term outlook involves planning for comprehensive care and support as the condition progresses.

Complications in Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease can lead to several complications that significantly impact health and daily living. As the disease progresses, memory loss and cognitive decline become more pronounced, making it challenging to manage daily tasks and personal care. This can result in an increased dependency on caregivers for basic needs like eating, dressing, and bathing.

  • Communication difficulties often arise, making it hard to express thoughts and emotions, which can lead to frustration and social withdrawal.
  • The risk of falls and injuries increases due to problems with balance and coordination.
  • In advanced stages, there may be significant changes in behavior, including agitation and aggression.
  • Swallowing difficulties can occur, raising the risk of choking or developing pneumonia.
  • The ability to fight infections diminishes, making even common illnesses more dangerous.

These complications severely affect the quality of life, leading to a need for comprehensive support and care.

Treatment Methods for Alzheimer’s Disease

In the management of Alzheimer’s Disease, lifestyle modifications are recognized as playing a crucial role. A balanced diet, rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins, is recommended. The Mediterranean diet, in particular, is associated with cognitive health. Regular physical activity, including aerobic exercises such as walking and strength training, supports brain function.

Pharmacotherapy options, although not curative, can assist in symptom management. Medications like cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine may be prescribed to improve cognition and delay progression.

Modern technology provides tools for cognitive stimulation and memory support. Applications designed to enhance brain function through games and tasks can be beneficial. Additionally, devices and software for reminders and daily task organization aid in the management of daily life.

These methods, while not subjects of clinical trials, are part of a comprehensive approach to Alzheimer’s care, focusing on maintaining quality of life and independence for as long as possible.

  • CT-EU-00057255

    Investigating aducanumab for slowing Alzheimer’s progression

    This study is all about checking if a drug called aducanumab can help people with early signs of Alzheimer’s disease. This medicine will be administered as an intravenous infusion. The main aim is to see if this drug can slow down the changes in thinking skills and daily activities that people with Alzheimer’s experience. To measure this, it will be used a tool called CDR-SB that asks questions about six major areas of life, such as memory, problem-solving, hobbies, and self-care. The more problems a person has in these areas, the higher the score.

    • Aducanumab
  • Testing a new drug for brain diseases in healthy volunteers

    This trial is the very first time people are being given a new medicine called FluoroEthylNorMemantine (FENM) that has potential in brain diseases treatment like major depressive disorder, treatment resistant depression, Alzheimer’s disease or PTSD. The trial is designed to garner insights into the safety of the medicine and how it behaves inside the body. Emphasis will be placed on understanding how the concentration of FENM evolves after oral ingestion. Each participant will receive a single oral dose of FENM as part of the study.

    • Fluoroethylnormemantine (FENM)
  • Studying safety & efficacy of new drug for early Alzheimer’s

    This study involves a new drug called AL-101(Alector) (GSK4527226). It is intended for people suffering from the early stage of Alzheimer’s disease. We will give some people with Alzheimer’s disease a drug and others a neutral drug (placebo). Scientists want to see if the new drug is better. Doctors use scoring systems to check a drug’s effectiveness. One way is through the CDR-SB score, which tests things like memory or problem-solving. Patients must score from 0 to 18 points. Higher scores mean they have more difficulties. Another way to check it is iADRS – it is a composite score that measures cognitive properties and functions. It is a combination of two tests called ADAS-Cog14 and ADCS-iADL. They test your thinking ability and ability to perform everyday activities. Higher scores mean they have more problems. Doctors also use ADAS-Cog14, ADCS-ADL-MCI, and ADCS-iADL separately to check for the same things, and ADCOMS to see how brain function changes over time.

    • AL-101(Alector)/GSK4527226
  • Study on preventing genetic Alzheimer’s with medication

    This study seeks to evaluate how well the drugs E2814 and lecanemab can treat early onset Alzheimer’s caused by a genetic mutation. Over a period lasting until 2027, 168 participants who have the mutation will be given these drugs intravenously, either in actuality or as a placebo, to observe any changes in their cognitive abilities and brain health markers. The aim is to see if these treatments can alter the course of the disease, providing a new avenue for prevention and care for individuals at risk of this form of dementia.

    • Lecanemab
    • E2814